Tamil Nadu • southern state of India

Some countries are so big and diverse, like India which is a sub-continent on its own, that selecting travel videos by region makes sense. Below is the list of videos concerning Tamil Nadu • southern state of India. These videos are edited on the basis of photos taken during the trip India • South India 2018 • Tamil Nadu and Kerala (EN). A click on the globe displays the list of all videos about India.

Tamil Nadu

The capital of Tamil Nadu is Chennai (formerly Madras) and the state is located in the far south of India. In the ranking of states by their number of inhabitants, Tamil Nadu comes in seventh position with its 75 million inhabitants.

Tamil Nadu is the most urbanized state since less than 50% of the people live in the countryside. The economy of Tamil Nadu is mainly based on services (45% followed by industry (30%) and finally agriculture (15%).

The official language is Tamil.

History of Tamil Nadu

The occupation of Tamil Nadu by human populations dates back several thousand years.

One of the oldest civilizations in the region is known as the "Sangam period" and has lasted for around 8 centuries since its origin in 500 BC.

Ancient Tamil Nadu was divided into 3 kingdoms ruled respectively by the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas dynasties. The Chera controlled present-day Kerala and western Tamil Nadu while the Cholas dominated the north of present-day Tamil Nadu and the Pandyas occupied the far south of the region.

Trade with the outside world was highly developed. Much trade took place with the Greeks and Romans in the west while in the east the Chinese merchants of the Han Dynasty were very active. Tamil Nadu was already renowned at the time for the quality of its spices.

Later, from the beginning of the 7th century until the 14th, the Pallava dynasty took control of the region and left iconic monuments such as the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram.

Then the Cholas returned to power in the 9th century and were themselves supplanted by the Pandyas. There are still some splendid monuments and temples dating from this period, such as the Meenakshi temple in Madurai.

South India did not escape Muslim invasions in the 14th century. In reaction, the Hindu empire Vijayanagara established itself in Karnataka and ended up conquering the whole Tamil country around 1370. This empire would last 2 centuries before being defeated in 1565 by a confederation of sultanates located further north.

The collapse of the Vijayanagara Empire would leave a patchwork of small states aspiring to independence and the Golconda Sultanate would extend over much of the Tamil country. Later, this sultanate ended up being incorporated into the Mughal Empire.

The arrival of Europeans

From the beginning of the 17th century, the Dutch established trading posts in Pulicat and the Danes in Tharangambadi (Tranquebar). Towards the middle of the 17th century, the English East India Company settled in Madras (Chennai) and the French in Pudducherry (Pondicherry). Wars broke out between these powers, reducing French property to its simplest form and installing the British Empire for decades.

A first rebellion against the British took place in 1806 and was quelled by the forces of the empire.

Several famines, causing millions of deaths, took place in the 19th century in Tamil Nadu, following a combination of poor harvests and a failing administration. It is one of these famines which caused a massive migration of Tamil peasants who engaged in conditions close to slavery in other British territories, such as Malaysia or Mauritius.

Indian independence

Upon India's independence in 1947, the former Madras presidency became the state of Madras bringing together present-day Tamil Nadu, part of Karnataka and Kerala. It was in 1969 that the current borders of Tamil Nadu were adopted, and the redistribution was made on linguistic criteria.

Video gallery • India, Tamil Nadu