Some countries are so big and diverse, like India which is a sub-continent on its own, that selecting travel videos by region makes sense. Below is the list of videos concerning Odisha - state on the east coast of India. These videos are edited on the basis of photos taken during the trip India • Surprising East India: Assam, Odisha, West Bengal. A click on the globe displays the list of all videos about India.
History of Odisha
Mahanadi River Valley Civilization
Odisha, also known by its old name of Orissa, is a state located on the east coast of India. The beginnings of human occupation of Odisha date back thousands of years. The region has been home to several ancient civilizations including the Mahanadi River Valley Civilization.
The Mahanadi River Valley Civilization is very ancient as it flourished from 3000 to 1500 BCE, making it one of the oldest civilizations in the Indian subcontinent.
Archaeological excavations have revealed that the inhabitants were farmers, herders and craftsmen. They lived in villages along the banks of the Mahanadi River and other rivers in the region. They built mud brick houses and used stone, bone and copper tools to cultivate the land, raise cattle and make pottery and jewelry.
The Mahanadi River Valley Civilization is also known for its contributions to religion and culture. The locals built stone temples and monuments, which served as religious centers for their community. They also developed a language and script that has survived to the present day.
This civilization declined around 1500 BCE, likely due to climate change, deforestation, and the expansion of other cultures into the area. However, it has left a lasting mark on the history and culture of Odisha and continues to be studied and explored by archaeologists and historians.
Over the centuries, Odisha has seen the influence of different dynasties and empires including the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Guptas, Kalingas, Rajputs, Mughals and Marathas. The region has also been influenced by Buddhism and Hinduism.
The Kalinga dynasty
The first dynasty known to have ruled over Odisha is the Kalinga dynasty. Kalinga was an ancient kingdom located in the region that today is Odisha and parts of neighboring states. Kings of the Kalinga dynasty ruled the region from 4th century BCE until the 1st century CE.
The Kalinga dynasty has been mentioned in several ancient texts, including the inscriptions of Ashoka, the Buddhist emperor of India who reigned in the 3rd century BCE. The dynasty reached its peak during the reign of Emperor Kharavela, who ruled in the 1st century BCE and led daring military campaigns that expanded the Kalinga kingdom.
The Kalinga dynasty has also been known for its role in the development of art, culture and religion in Odisha. Kings commissioned the construction of temples, monuments, and other architectural structures, many of which can still be seen today. The Hindu religion also flourished under their rule, with temples dedicated to several Hindu gods and goddesses built throughout the region.
However, the Kalinga dynasty was eventually replaced by other dynasties and empires including the Guptas, Eastern Gangas and Suryavamsi.
After the Kalinga Golden Age
Odisha has been an important center of Hindu culture and religion. Jagannath Temple in Puri, one of the holiest temples in Hinduism, is located in Odisha. The kings of the Ganga dynasty, who ruled Odisha from the 11th to the 15th century, built several temples and monuments in the region.
In the 16th century, the Portuguese arrived on the coast of Odisha, followed by the Danes, the Dutch and the British. The region finally became a British province in 1803.
After Indian independence in 1947, Odisha became a state of the Indian Union in 1950. Since then, the region has experienced significant economic development, especially in the sectors of industry, agriculture and tourism. Odisha is also known for its rich culture and heritage, with colorful festivals, dances and traditional craft arts.
Odisha's economy is mainly based on agriculture, mining, industry and tourism. The state is rich in natural resources such as iron ore, bauxite, coal, chromium, and manganese, making it one of India's leading mining states. The state is also known for its production of rice, jute, sugar cane, coconut, and seafood.
Mining is an important sector of Odisha's economy, with major mining companies like the National Aluminum Company, Tata Steel and the Steel Authority of India having operations in the state. The heavy industry sector is also well developed, with factories producing steel, aluminium, cement and chemicals.
Tourism is also an important sector of Odisha's economy, especially due to its many beaches, temples, monuments and archaeological sites. Popular tourist sites include the temples of Konark, Puri and Lingaraj, as well as Bhitarkanika National Park and the beaches of Puri, Konark and Chandipur.
However, despite these important economic sectors, Odisha remains one of the poorest states in India. The state government strives to promote investment and economic growth by providing tax incentives and quality infrastructure to attract foreign investment and encourage industrial development in the state.
The population of Odisha is around 46 million, making it the 11th most populous state in India. The population density of the state is 269 people per square kilometer. The majority of Odisha's population is rural, with about 83% of the population living in rural areas.
The official language of Odisha is Odia, but other languages like Telugu, Santali and Kui are also spoken in some parts of the state. The predominant religion in Odisha is Hinduism, with around 94% of the population practicing this religion. Christianity, Islam and Sikhism are also present in smaller numbers.
The society of Odisha is divided into different communities and castes, with higher castes like Brahmins and Kshatriyas occupying positions of power and privilege in the society. However, the state government has put in place policies to encourage equality and social inclusion by offering development programs for castes and disadvantaged communities.
The state also has a strong tribal presence, with over 62 tribes recognized by the state government. The tribes of Odisha have their own culture, language and traditions, and are concentrated in the mountainous and forested regions of the state.
The state also has a large female population, with a female literacy rate of nearly 65%, which is higher than the national average. The state government has put in place programs to encourage girls' education and women's economic empowerment.